Twelve dimeric and tetrameric complexes of CoII, NiII, CuII, ZnII, CdII and HgII with one bis-bidentate ligand (LH3) and bis-tetradentate azodye ligand (L'H6) have been synthesized. The complexes have been characterized by analytical, conductance, magnetic susceptibility, IR, electronic spectra, NMR and ESR data. The cobalt (II) and nickel (II) complexes are found to be octahedral, copper (II) complexes are distorted octahedral and a tetrahedral stereochemistry has been assigned to Zn (II), Cd (II) and Hg (II) complexes.
Synthesis of nano sized spinal ferrite materials has become an important part of modern ceramic research. Microwave route for synthesis of ferrites at nano dimension is a technology for ceramic manufacturing, which integrates the synthetic technology for information storage materials. Number of synthetic methods is in the literature, out of these, microwave firing could be an interesting because of its simplicity, eco-friendly and less time consuming. This microwave firing is used for synthesis of magnesium ferrite materials. Nanosized MgFe2O4 is synthesized by microwave route using urea as a fuel. Magnesium oxalates and iron oxalates were prepared by dissolving magnesium and iron salt in oxalic acid solution. These two oxalates with urea are irradiated with microwaves using urea as a fuel to get cubic MgFe2O4 nanoparticles. The structure of the prepared nano ferrite is studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. This study shows that the formation of crystalline cubic structure. Morphology of magnesium ferrite is viewed by Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) tool. This SEM image shows spherical particles with compact and globular arrangement. Infrared spectroscopic technique is used to know the bonding in the ferrite sample. Metal-Oxygen (Mg-O & Fe-O) and metal-metal (Mg-Fe) bonding is observed in the spectrum.
In the present paper effect of overtaking disturbances on the freely propagation of converging strong spherical shock through a rotating dusty gas is studied by a technique developed by Yadav16. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of a perfect gas and small solid particles. Assuming an initial density distribution law as r0=rcr-a, where rc is the density at the axis of symmetry and a a positive constant, the analytical relations for flow variables modified by overtaking disturbances are obtained. The variations of flow variables with (i) propagation distance, (ii) mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture, (iii) specific density G and (iv) angular velocity W, are obtained. The results obtained here are also compared with those for a freely propagating shock.
Cadmium and Arsenic were assessed in some organs (gill and liver) of three species Epinephelus chdostigma, Plectropomus maculates, Scarus Chobban collected from Red sea. The present results showed that the high concentration in all organs of all fishes were found in cadmium than those of Arsenic. These results indicate that the analysis of Cd and As in different organs might be a useful as bioindicator for trace metals pollution in sea water due to their ability to rapidly accumulation and retain them in their tissues for long period of time.
The present work is aimed to study the shallow fresh Water aquifer in sedimentary area. 3 vertical electrical soundings (VES) were carried out in the study area using Schlumberger method. CRM 500 instrument was used in the present study. The field data were interpreted by IPI2WIN software. Using the interpreted sounding results the best location (VES 1) of the 3 test locations. The test data interpretation was validated in bore well drilled at the recommended site. The results obtained from IPI2Win software was found to be 100 % correct in the field check. The top shallow aquifers are commonly fresh in nature in the study area. 18 m depth bore hole was drilled and samples were collected at 1 m interval. The observed subsurface details are 1-2 m (Clay mixed sand), 2-4 m (Medium to coarse sand), 5-8 m (Coarse sand), 8-9 m (Sandstone), 9-10 m (Coarse Sand), 10-17 (Medium Sand), 17-18 m (Sandstone). The study reveals that the top shallow aquifers are noticed from5 m to 17 m with good groundwater potential. It is thus established that the IPI2Win software interpretation is reliable in sedimentary area.
This is a combined critical appraisal of Environment Impacts Assessment study of Major Water Resource Projects lying in three river basins (Betwa, Narmada,Yamuna) of M.P. The paper critically reviews "the Environmental, Economic and Ecological status with development scenario before and after the completion of these projects". The physical benefits anticipated in the project report are compared with the actual benefits achieved with respect to Rain fall, ground water status, flora-fauna, aqua fauna, water quality, rehabilitation of affected people, submergence of land, water logging, crop production and, fish production. The after effects of irrigation works & developments have also been analyzed. Thus the paper presents the real life case study of existing water resources projects. The agriculture production, land irrigation, green cover strategy, weather phenomena have also been analysed. The over all impacts of the command area before and after the construction of these projects have been critically and objectively analyzed. This paper will be a useful thread for establishing a comprehensive connectivity through overall assessment of positive and negative impacts of the water resources projects.
GIS is a powerful tools in analysing the multiple thematic maps at a time. GIS analysis is carried out in the present study to locate favorable groundwater potential zones. To do this subsurface investigation and its interpretation were carried out through geophysical survey. Forty seven vertical electrical soundings (VES) survey were carried out in the study area. The field data were interpreted by curve matching techniques and RESIST software is used to determine the resistivity and thickness of the different layers. By using conventional GIS method, the spatial distribution maps for weathered zone resistivity and its thickness were prepared. Integration of the said themes was done it in GIS. The out put combinations are 4 of Excellent, Very good, Good and Medium groundwater potential zones were derived, and it is designated as output map-1 (groundwater potential zone map). This map was superposed over groundwater fluctuation map. The derived final result map designated as suitable sites for artificial recharge area. From the final out put area as Excellent, Very good, Good and Medium zones were recommended of this locations suitable sites for artificial recharge structures will be constructed. Other aquifer properties, coefficient of anisotropy varies from 1.02 to 2.40 and longitudinal conductance varies from 0.07 to 0.5 mhos. These values indicate the hardness and compaction of rocks. It is evidenced by low permeability and porosity of the study area.
Using the experimental data recorded by hydro meteorological data acquisition system installed at observatory Thiruvananthapuram (76° 59' E longitude and 8° 30' N latitude) in south Kerala, a study was conducted to capture the effects of soil moisture and soil temperature conditions on surface albedo. The variation of surface albedo with soil temperature and soil moisture on wet and dry days is studied. It was found that surface albedo decreases with increasing soil moisture content. On wet days the high moisture content allows more solar radiations to be used for evaporating water. Hence the less reflected solar radiation reduces the albedo. The reverse is the case on dry days.
Thermal analysis of some Schiff bases derived from p-amino phenol, have been carried out by DSC, TG and DTA techniques. TG data of decomposition have been analyzed for the kinetic parameters using Freeman-Carroll method. From the observed curves, various kinetic parameters such as order of degradation (n), energy of activation (E), frequency factor (A) and entropy change (DS) have been evaluated. Further, thermal stability of Schiff bases have been determined which is found to depend on the type of substituent present in the compounds.
The Briggs plume rise equations arise in the study of 'Atmospheric dispersion modeling'. The widely used equations studied in the model suggest that the Briggs' equations proposed for bent-over, hot buoyant plumes are the only relevant ones in general. Such models are important to governmental agencies tasked with protecting and managing the ambient air quality the models are typically employed to determine whether existing or proposed new industrial facilities are or will be in compliance with national ambient air quality standards. The models also serve to assist in the design of effective control strategies to reduce emissions of harmful air pollutants.