Evaporate minerals are often occurred by evaporation processes in a closed sedimentary basin. These minerals can show distinctive assemblages of minerals in a depositional environment. One of the important objectives of multi-spectral and developed multi-spectral sensors is the detection of optical characteristics of the Earth's surface using spectral bands. The evaporate minerals in the Evaz-Heerm area have been investigated in the field and have been successfully detected by applying FCC (False Color Composite), MNF (Minimum Noise Fraction Transform) and MEM (Mathematical evaluation method) techniques on Landsat TM4 imageries. Halite, gypsum, anhydrite and dolomite minerals can be distinguished. This study shows clearly the capability of Landsat TM4 data in the detection of evaporate minerals in the Evaz-Heerm area, and the MEM method can be comfortable technique for the Landsat TM4 imagery data. The pervasive assemblage of evaporate minerals indicate that the Evaz-Heerm area belongs to a closed depositional basin.
In the present paper, an analysis has been carried out for a two dimensional, incompressible viscous flow in a porous medium with variable permeability past an infinite plate with constant heat flux and chemical reaction effects. An analytical solution has been obtained by introducing non-dimensional parameters. The effects of permeability and chemical reaction parameters on the flow field has been obtained and discussed with the help of graphs.
Measurement of the acoustics wave velocity through a fluid combined with physical properties of the medium such as its density, temperature and pressure provide information about thermodynamic parameters of the fluid such as: specific acoustic impedance (Z), adiabatic compressibility (b), apparent molal compressibility (j(k)), molar sound velocity (R), inter-molecular free length (Lf), relative association (RA) and hydration number (Sn). The estimation of the thermodynamic parameters in aqueous solutions of electrolytes of different valence types has been carried and the dependence of these parameters on cationic and anionic radii established. In the case of an electrolyte having anionic radius of 18.75 Å and cationic radius of 1.33 Å, the changes observed in the parameters have been studied , which provide an insight into the influence of cationic size on these parameters. It is found that the size of the cation appreciably influences these parameters.
The origin and propagation mechanism of low latitude daytime whistlers are investigated on the basis of the very low frequency (VLF) wave measurements made continuously during day and night hours in North India at our newly setup ground based station Jammu (geomag.lat., 22o 26/ N; L=1.17). From the dispersion analysis of the VLF data collected over a time span of about seven years, extremely small dispersion (ESD) whistlers with dispersion varying from 5-10 sec1/2 in surprisingly large numbers were found during daytime but only in geomagnetic quiet periods. This feature supports the hypothesis of combined ground ionosphere and field- aligned propagation known as hybrid mode of propagation. The lower cut-off frequencies of these whistlers have been evaluated and majority of these whistlers are found to lie in the low frequency range of ~3-4.4 kHz.
The availability of fresh water is of concern. River basins all over the world have potential groundwater resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. But at national level, the need of the groundwater exceeds the groundwater potential and water scarcity exists. People residing near the coastal area, face a threat of saline water intrusion. It becomes essential to evaluate qualitative and quantitative assessment of existing ground water resources. Area adjacent to Gulf of Mannar, which forms a part of River Gundar basin, has been chosen for this study. The study area occupies southeastern part of Indian sub continent and surface flow is restricted only to monsoon season. Ground water sample of from 33 locations have been collected in two different seasons (pre- and post monsoon). The above samples have been analyzed and brought into a digital output using a simple program HYCH. From the digital output, thematic maps such as Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Groundwater Classification and Salinity and Sodium Hazard have been prepared using the GIS environment. It is inferred that the quality of groundwater improves unevenly in different locations with respect to season indicating the recharge is not uniform. An appreciable amount of quality improvement has been observed along the northern and central portion of the study area. The quality improvement in south is poor. It is suggested that by constructing large number of artificial recharge structures to trap monsoon rainwater along the northern and central part of the study area will improve the quality of groundwater remarkably. Designing of recharging wells along the southern region will result in considerable improvement both in the quality and quantity of groundwater.
The reduction of Pb(II) in the aqueous solution with some amino acids (cystein and serine) and thiodiglycolic acid (TDGA) have been investigated at dropping mercury electrode (DME). The stability constants of Pb-TDGA and Pb-amino acids were measured first by the method of Deford and Humes and that of Pb-amino acids-TDGA have been studied by the method of Shaap and McMasters. The reduction of all the complexes has been found to be reversible and diffusion controlled, involving two electrons in each case. Three types of mixed complexes MXY, MX2Yand MXY2 have been determined and found to be more stable than that of the simple ones. With the help of these data statistical and electrostatic effects have been considered.
Experiments were conducted to determine the residues of 18 pesticides in water samples collected from Four Lakes (Kamana, Karanji, Kukkarahally and Dalvoi lakes) located in Mysore city and comparison of their contamination level with other agricultural water samples around Mysore district, Karnataka, India. These Samples were analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) consisting of Electron Capture Detector (ECD) to determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and Flame Photometric Detector (FPD) for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs). All the lake water samples, as well as ground water samples, had no detectable pesticide residues. Instead, four pesticides including Aldrin, b-HCH, g-HCH, and 4,4-DDT were detected in other agricultural water samples. For the pesticides detected the presence of b-HCH and 4,4-DDT was comparatively more. All detected pesticides in water samples were in low concentrations except for b-HCH in one sample. No organophosphorus and atrazin pesticide residues were detected in water samples.
Density (r), viscosity (h) and ultrasonic velocity (U) have been measured for sodium halide solutions namely sodium fluoride (NaF), sodium chloride(NaCl), sodium bromide (NaBr) in aqueous dimethylformamide (DMF) (1m) at 303, 308 and 313K. Using the experimental values, the adiabatic compressibility (β), hydration number (nH), apparent molal compressibility (φk), apparent molal volume (φv), limiting apparent molal compressibility (φok), limiting apparent molal volume(φov) and their constants (SK, SV) and viscosity A and B coefficients of Jones-Dole equation were calculated and the results have been discussed in terms of ion-solvent interactions.
The investigation was carried out to assess the surface water quality regarding drinking and irrigational purposes. The studies were conducted in the year 2006-07 at Varanasi. The samples were collected from open well, bore well and hand pump from four different zones on the basis of the water lifting for potability and domestic use by residents. The parameters analysed were pH, alkalinity, free CO2, acidity, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, hardness and calcium, magnesium, chloride contents. The values of some parameters in the study were found to be high as compared to permissible limits, which may have adverse effect on diverse uses of water.
In the present study, an experimental model of blood flow in stenosis artery under the action of an applied axial magnetic field is proposed. A variable magnetic field ranging from 5.46 - 21.84 gauss is used to conduct the experiment. This model consist with the principles of ferrohydrodynamics and magne- tohydrodynamics and takes into account the magnetization property of blood. The flow is appreciably influenced by the application of the magnetic field. A comparison of the derived results is also taken into account.